Computer Architecture – Complete Guide from a to z

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Hey Readers! Today in this article we go to the next level of computer introduction. You will learn about computer architecture. Also history and its types.

Computer Architecture

Set of rules and methods that define function, organization, and implementation.
Set of instruction of architecture, logic design, and its implementation called computer architecture.

The connectivity of different hardware devices with each other is Computer Architecture. The interconnection of input and output devices. Control unit, memories, and other parts of the computer.

For Example:
To build a house, we have complete architecture. That is how many peoples involved in the complete process.

And how much time and money required and the map of the house. This complete process is the architecture of house building.

In the same way, when talking about computers. Then you must know about its architecture and about the working of each part of the computer.

You know how computer systems work properly. Also, you know about every component of a computer as I mentioned. How these devices connect and communicate with each other.


You want to build a computer system. You need to know about things. How things work and how to set up the whole system.

The main thing is that we focus on the speed and efficiency of machines. For this, you need to know about the whole design process.

Circuit design, packaging, cooling, and power involved in implementation. Optimize design need logic design of operating system and compilers.


The instruction is the interface between hardware and software. It can be viewed by the programmer’s view. The machine does not understand high-level languages.

High-level languages such as C, C++, etc. are high-level languages. Processors understand these instructions.

Many assemblers and compilers in the market used to compile these high-level languages. These languages compile in the form of 0 and 1.

Basic Computer Architecture

The processor is the only one that performs any task. It uses memory to store information and input or output.

The processor direct interacts with memory and input/output devices.

A CPU or microprocessor found in an integrated circuit. It helps the main processor to perform tasks fast. All modern processors are microprocessors.

Information and data, both will contain by the memory. This information and data executed by the processor. Memory contains something in it. It cannot empty.


Once Instruction done, a practical machine starts to develop. This process called implementation. It is not considered the architecture design.
There are a few steps of design implementation.

  • Logic Implementation
  • Circuit Implementation
  • Physical Implementation
  • Design Validation

Architecture Goals

Exact computer architecture design depends on the goals of design and constraints. The architecture usually includes memory capacity, cost of architecture, power efficiency.

And the time is taken to transfer information from one place to another. Size, weight, and features also matter.


Modern computers performance depends on IPC. IPC means instructions per cycle. If the speed of IPC is faster, means the computer is faster. The architecture efficiency depends on clock frequency.

IPC of supercomputers or superscalar computers is faster than simple computers. Means their IPC rate is three or four in one clock frequency.

Many other methods used to check the speed of new computer architecture design. People measured in MHz or GHz.

Two main ways we see in the performance. The time of completion of one process. And another is how much work done in one process.

Power Efficiency

Another important measurement in modern computers is power efficiency. Higher power efficiency can be the reason for higher cost and low speed.

Measurement of power in computer system architecture is millions of instructions per unit per watt (MIPS/W).

Kinds of Computer Architecture

Now discuss some general kinds of computer architecture.

  • Register Memory
  • Accumulator
  • Register Oriented
  • Stack

Register Memory

Register memory is a very high-speed memory. Accessed more quickly than external memory. High-speed general-purpose register and special purpose registers are an advantage.


The register form architecture that uses the primary register is the accumulator.

Register Oriented

Register-oriented computer architecture working on that principle on all processor instructions work.


Instructions take the operands from an internal stack. Not for memory or register. Operands move by memory by pushing them onto the stack.


Here is the complete process of computer architecture. In which a to z explanation of computer system architecture. And also kinds of architecture also discuss.


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