Components of Computer – 4 Main Parts

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Feature image of components of computer

Components are hardware items that are hard, visible, and touchable. The hard components of a computer system are places under a cabinet.

(We will discuss Introduction to Computer in detail in our previous post. You will check by clicking on the link.)

Components of Computer – Examples

Examples of Components of computer is
1. System Unit
2. Motherboard
3. CPU (Processor)
4. Memory (RAM & ROM)
5. Graphics card
6. Input Devices
7. Output Devices
In today’s post, we will learn about the system unit, motherboard, CPU in detail. The next components will explain in our future articles.


Here is first of all we learn about system unit (cabinet). Following is the picture of the system unit.

Introduction to components - System Unit Image

There is a particular position of the motherboard in the system unit with a cooling fan. The power supply that reserved for SMPS. Cables provide power to the whole system unit connected with this power supply.

Graphics cards are installed in the PCI slot and the ADP slot is also there. We see the DIM slot in the motherboard in which RAM is installed. North and south-bridge also in the motherboard.

There is an Intel fan with a heat sink. And in the bottom, a processor is attached with thermal paste.

The working of thermal paste is to remove air gaps or spaces from the interface area. For maximum heat transfer and excess.

All types of protocols and hard disks are attached to the system unit. This is the complete basic structure of the system unit.


The motherboard is known as the interconnection of components in a computer. It is a circuit board. Which have ports and sockets with transistor coating to connect components together.

Introduction to components - Motherboard image

It used contact of the flow of data. It gives instructions with the help of buses. There are two categories of the motherboard are

  1. Plane (Single sided)
  2. Mark (dual-sided)

Categories of Motherboard

We categorize the motherboard into three main sections.

Desktop Motherboard

It is used in a desktop system. It comes with up-gradation capability. We can upgrade it.

Laptop Motherboard

It is used in laptops. All components are placed in limited space. A rare motherboard allows up-gradation.

Server Motherboard

It is used in the server. Bigger is size, having many portions. It is designed for high-end works.

Different Types of Motherboard

Different types of motherboards are used in different systems like Mini ATx, Micro ATx, Flex ATx, EATx, Pico ATx, etc.

Buses in Motherboard

Three types of Computer buses are in the motherboard that is

Data Bus

It sends and receives data to memory.

Address Bus

It sends the address of inputs to the memory and RAM.

Control Bus

It makes communication between CPU and components.

CPU (Central Processing Unit)

CPU is known as the brain of compute. It is the first priority to run the machine.
CPU is a chip-based structure. It is made up of millions of transistors and logic gates. I receive the incoming instructions as input, from memory and RAM. Proceed it and gives results as output.

Introduction to components - Central Processing Unit Image

CPU is responsible for the speed and capacity to execute tasks in computer systems. These microprocessors are categorized into two different architectures, 32bit, and 64bit.

Segments of CPU

CPU is divided into two different segments.

Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU)

I perform all the arithmetic, mathematical, algebra, and logical tasks. Like addition, division, multiplication, subtraction, and modulus.

It also performs logical tasks like AND, OR, and NOT.

Control Unit (CU)

CU is controlling the flow of data. Between microprocessor and the external components of the computer using CPU buses. It also tells the components of the computer. How to respond to the instructions that have been sent to the processor.

These are the factors that make a processor perform tasks many times.


There are many confusing things are seeing. When someone talks about the specification of CPU. In the following section, we discuss some of these specifications. Including clock speed, cache memory, and operating voltages.

Clock Speed

Clock speed is a unit. Measure the number of instructions executes by the working microprocessor within a second.

Also, we say that clock speed measures the number of cycles that the CPU executes per second. The process is called clock speed. It is measure in GHz.

Cache Memory

Cache memory is fast memory. It is static-natured and quick responsive memory. By structure, it is made up of 6 transistors and 1 capacitor in each cell block. It is categorized into three types, L1, L2, and L3.

Operation Voltage

It means how much power or voltage a microprocessor needs to perform tasks. Now we going towards ending by learning something about packaging and power supply.


The process of installing the microprocessor in the motherboard, known as packaging.
In motherboard, there are different types of packaging for different types of microprocessors.

Packaging based upon which microprocessor you want to install in your system. The processor is installed and fixed with the socket in the motherboard.

Switch-mode power supply (SMPS)

A device is used to input power to all components of the motherboard. It contains different color wires. It has different voltages, for different components of the CPU cabinet.

Introduction to components - Power Supply image

Like other power supplies, it transfers power from AC source to DC loads.

So, today we see the components of computers. In which we learn about system unit, motherboard, CPU, and power supply.


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This Post Has 2 Comments

  1. Hamza

    Thanku… Great post

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