An Operating System – a To z Full guide

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The operating system supports in basics functions of computer. It is a type of system software. An OS is installed in the hard disc of the computer system. The hard disc in which the OS install is separate from other partitions.

The operating system must be installed to run the computer system. The operating system interacts with hardware and other software to do different tasks.

It is also built relation between hardware and software.

History of Operating System

In the early days when there is no use of OS. Every program and software need full specification of hardware for doing their work.

But in present days operating systems are essential to use for everyone.

Early computers work on programs. Every user who wants to use the computer.

Must arrive with programs. These programs and data run on punch paper cards.

Person loads their program on the machine. This specific person works on the system until the work is complete.

In 1956, the first real working operating system was produced. This is by the research of General Motors. Many other early operating systems were produced by IBM.

Types of an Operating System

Operating systems have several types. We can divide these types according to the functions of operating systems. We discuss some of them here.

Real-Time OS

Real-time operating systems serve real-time applications. It process data when data comes in.

It is time bounded OS. So, data or events process by a specific moment in time. Otherwise, the system will fail.

We can divide real-time OS into two parts.

Hard Real-Time

The work is done in this type of real-time OS severe. Because given task must start on schedule time.

Examples of Hard real-time.

Medical care systems, Plane systems, etc.

Soft Real-Time

Work is performed also in this type of real-time operating system stern. But some delay accepts. So, work done slushy.

Examples of Soft real-time

Online transaction system etc.

Single-tasking and Multi-tasking OS

Single-tasking OS runs one program at a time. While multi-tasking OS runs many programs at a time.

In multitasking, the available processor divides time between many processes. So work done in many tasking is achieve by time-sharing.

There are two types of multi-tasking operating systems. It may be preemptive and cooperative.

In the preemptive type, the OS divides slots between each program. UNIX and Linux-like OS support the preemptive operating systems.

In co-operative type, time provides to each process in a defined manner. Windows 16bit and 32bit using this type of OS.

Single-user and Multi-user OS

In a single-user operating system, there are no facilities for users. Single-user OS may allow multi-program to run.

Multi-user OS increases the concept of multi-tasking. It gives facilities to many users to interact at the same time.

Distributed Operating System

It is one of the most important types of operating systems. Many processors use to serve many users and software.

This OS manage group of computers to make them a single computer. In this OS, the process may vary in size and function.

Using electronic mail, sharing of data is fast. It gives better service to their customer.

Important functions of OS

An Operating system has many functions. These functions give users the best experience. User experience makes the product more reliable to use. Here we learn about some components and functions of the operating systems.

File Management

In directories, the file system is held for easy use. In these directories, there may be other directories contain. These all files carry by OS.

Processor Management

In a multiprogramming system, the OS decides. How much processor requires to process? This function is known as processes scheduling.

The process state track by a program called traffic controller. CPU processor is required to devote to the process. And no devote when no more need is required.

Memory Management

The memory which is currently in use manage by the kernel. The memory management by the kernel happens in a multiprogramming operating system.

An operating system also managed the main and primary memory. The memory protection in computer memory cannot give access to the kernel.

There are many other methods of memory protection that exist. These are segmentation violation and seg-V in short etc.


There are many technologies working in OS to become computer secure. These security technologies have checks and balances for each file.

Operating systems also have password system techniques. This technique uses to secure user data.

Network services may happen to compromise system security. These services include emails, websites, file transfer protocol (FTP), etc.

Firewalls and intrusion detection systems secure computers from attack. There are other software and firewalls also available to secure computers.

Conclusion of an operating system

Here is a complete post, in which we have learned an introduction to the operating system. History, types, and functions or components of the operating system.

In our next blog post, we will cover examples of operating systems. We also learn about windows, Linux, etc. operating systems.


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